# Dual Processes, Conflict, and Response Dynamics

## The time course of conflict on the Cognitive Reflection Test

Eoin Travers
Jonathan Rolison
Aidan Feeney
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Queen's University Belfast

# Dual Processes in Reasoning

• [...]
• Architectures/Role of conflict

# Conflict

When should we see it?

## Never?

Single-process theories

Selective/Pre-emptive conflict resolution

## One way?

Corrective/Default-Interventionist

## Two ways?

Competitive/Parallel-Competitive

Intuitive logic

## The case for Logical-Intuitions

• Implicit conflict detection
• Slow beliefs, fast logic

# This Experiment

### Cognitive Reflection Test

A bat and a ball cost £1.10 in total.
The bat costs £1.00 more than the ball.
How much does the ball cost?

### Conflict

A bat and a ball cost £1.10 in total.
The bat costs £1.00 more than the ball.
How much does the ball cost?

### Control

A bat and a ball together costs £1.05.
A bat costs £1.
How much does a ball cost?

## Design

• HTML5 experiment, large computer lab
• 8x Questions: 4 conflict, 4 control
• (from Primi et al, 2015; J. of Behav. Decision Making)
• Except...
• 131 participants(!)
• Analysis of first 60 seconds mouse data

# Results

## Choices

 Conflict trials Control trials Heuristic choices 58.3% 09.8% Correct choices 35.6% 80.8% Other choices 06.1% 09.2%

## Summary stats

Comparing responses

Choice N RT Path length Proximity
Correct 181 27.27 8.68 0.99
Heuristic 297 21.02 7.52 1.12
p < .05 < .1 < .05

Baseline condition

Trials N RT Path length
Correct (Conflict) 181 27.27 8.68
Baseline 382 23.75 8.05
Heuristic (Conflict) 297 21.02 7.52
p >.1 >.1

Video

# Change Points

$P(Heuristic) - P(Other)$
$P(Correct) - P(Other)$

$$y = \begin{cases} 0 & if\ t\ <\ \tau \\ \beta * t & otherwise \end{cases}\\ \tau \sim Uniform(0, max(t))$$

# Change Points

$P(Heuristic) - P(Other)$
 MLE 2.5% 97.5% $\tau$ 3.829 3.665 3.978 $\beta$ .027 .026 .028 $\sigma$ .012 .011 .013

$P(Correct) - P(Other)$
 MLE 2.5% 97.5% $\tau$ 9.268 9.032 9.484 $\beta$ .014 .014 .015 $\sigma$ .013 .013 .014

# Conflict?

## Predictions

### No conflict

Single-process theories
Selective dual processes

### Conflict

Corrective dual processes
Competitive dual processes
Intuitive logic

# Conflict?

## Predictions

### No conflict

Single process theories
Selective dual processes
Corrective dual processes

### Conflict

Competitive dual processes
Intuitive-logic

# Discussion

### Responses

• Bias as usual

• ### Summary measures

• It's hard to be right

• ### Time course

• Decisions develop
• Movement to chosen response...

• ## Conflict

Attraction to heuristic response when selecting correct one

...but not the other way around.

## Implications for Logical Intuitions

Easy vs. hard logic

.

Conflict detection
vs.
Criterion S?

.

In forced choice
Uncertainty ≠ Conflict

→ Rationalisation?

## Other points

Single process?

Can the mice be trusted?

...or do the eyes have it?

Future questions

• Individual differences
• Predictors of analytic thinking