Dual Processes, Conflict, and Response Dynamics

The time course of conflict on the Cognitive Reflection Test

Eoin Travers
Jonathan Rolison
Aidan Feeney
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Queen's University Belfast

Dual Processes in Reasoning

  • [...]
  • Architectures/Role of conflict

Conflict

When should we see it?

Never?

Single-process theories

Selective/Pre-emptive conflict resolution

One way?

Corrective/Default-Interventionist

Two ways?

Competitive/Parallel-Competitive

Intuitive logic

The case for Logical-Intuitions

  • Implicit conflict detection
  • Slow beliefs, fast logic

This Experiment

Journey > Destination

Cognitive Reflection Test

An archetypal dual process task?

A bat and a ball cost £1.10 in total.
The bat costs £1.00 more than the ball.
How much does the ball cost?

Conflict

A bat and a ball cost £1.10 in total.
The bat costs £1.00 more than the ball.
How much does the ball cost?

Control

A bat and a ball together costs £1.05.
A bat costs £1.
How much does a ball cost?

Design

  • HTML5 experiment, large computer lab
  • 8x Questions: 4 conflict, 4 control
  • (from Primi et al, 2015; J. of Behav. Decision Making)
    • Except...
  • 131 participants(!)
  • Analysis of first 60 seconds mouse data

Results

Choices

Conflict trials Control trials
Heuristic choices 58.3% 09.8%
Correct choices 35.6% 80.8%
Other choices 06.1% 09.2%

Summary stats

Comparing responses

Choice N RT Path length Proximity
Correct 181 27.27 8.68 0.99
Heuristic 297 21.02 7.52 1.12
p < .05 < .1 < .05

Baseline condition

Trials N RT Path length
Correct (Conflict) 181 27.27 8.68
Baseline 382 23.75 8.05
Heuristic (Conflict) 297 21.02 7.52
p >.1 >.1

Time course

Video

Change Points

$P(Heuristic) - P(Other)$
$P(Correct) - P(Other)$

$$ y = \begin{cases} 0 & if\ t\ <\ \tau \\ \beta * t & otherwise \end{cases}\\ \tau \sim Uniform(0, max(t)) $$

Change Points

$P(Heuristic) - P(Other)$
MLE 2.5% 97.5%
$\tau$ 3.829 3.665 3.978
$\beta$ .027 .026 .028
$\sigma$ .012 .011 .013

$P(Correct) - P(Other)$
MLE 2.5% 97.5%
$\tau$ 9.268 9.032 9.484
$\beta$ .014 .014 .015
$\sigma$ .013 .013 .014

Conflict?

Towards heuristic response?

Predictions

No conflict

Single-process theories
Selective dual processes

Conflict

Corrective dual processes
Competitive dual processes
Intuitive logic

Conflict?

Towards correct response?

Predictions

No conflict

Single process theories
Selective dual processes
Corrective dual processes

Conflict

Competitive dual processes
Intuitive-logic

Discussion

Responses

  • Bias as usual

  • Summary measures

  • It's hard to be right

  • Time course

  • Decisions develop
  • Movement to chosen response...

  • Conflict

    Attraction to heuristic response when selecting correct one

    ...but not the other way around.

    Implications for Logical Intuitions

    Easy vs. hard logic

    .

    Conflict detection
    vs.
    Criterion S?

    .

    In forced choice
    Uncertainty ≠ Conflict

    → Rationalisation?

    Other points

    Single process?

    Can the mice be trusted?

    ...or do the eyes have it?

    Future questions

    • Individual differences
    • Predictors of analytic thinking

    Thanks